Meteorologia spaziale

Velocità del vento solare Vento solare dei campi magnetici Apice radioflusso a 10.7 cm
Bt Bz

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WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jul 17, 2018 5.52 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2018 Jul 17 0551 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Jul 17 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jul 6, 2018 2.55 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3500
Valid From: 2018 Jul 05 1310 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Jul 06 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jul 5, 2018 19.52 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3499
Valid From: 2018 Jul 05 1310 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Jul 06 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Emesso: Jul 5, 2018 19.46 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2018 Jul 05 1936 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Emesso: Jul 5, 2018 18.32 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2018 Jul 05 1832 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Jul 05 2300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

CANCEL WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Emesso: Jul 5, 2018 18.31 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Cancel Serial Number: 1481
Original Issue Time: 2018 Jul 05 1828 UTC

Comment: Cancel Warning to edit valid to: date to 05 July - incorrectly sent with 15 July

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Emesso: Jul 5, 2018 18.28 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2018 Jul 05 1828 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Jul 15 2300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Emesso: Jul 5, 2018 18.00 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2018 Jul 05 1754 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1500-1800 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emesso: Jul 5, 2018 13.11 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2018 Jul 05 1310 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Jul 05 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jul 4, 2018 16.23 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2812
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 24 1800 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 3924 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jul 3, 2018 8.59 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2811
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 24 1800 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 4454 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jul 2, 2018 9.00 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2810
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 24 1800 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 5241 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jul 1, 2018 9.00 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2809
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 24 1800 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 5197 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jun 30, 2018 9.05 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2808
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 24 1800 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 4596 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jun 29, 2018 9.01 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2807
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 24 1800 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 5571 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jun 28, 2018 8.59 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2806
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 24 1800 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 3940 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CANCEL WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Emesso: Jun 27, 2018 15.26 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Cancel Serial Number: 832
Original Issue Time: 2018 Jun 25 2040 UTC

Comment: Conditions no longer valid

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jun 27, 2018 13.26 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2805
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 24 1800 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2668 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emesso: Jun 26, 2018 19.32 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2018 Jun 26 1931 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Jun 27 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jun 26, 2018 18.21 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2804
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 24 1800 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2919 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emesso: Jun 26, 2018 11.09 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3496
Valid From: 2018 Jun 25 2216 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Jun 26 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emesso: Jun 26, 2018 5.55 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3495
Valid From: 2018 Jun 25 2216 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Jun 26 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Emesso: Jun 26, 2018 2.39 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2018 Jun 26 0239 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Emesso: Jun 25, 2018 22.50 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2018 Jun 25 2250 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Emesso: Jun 25, 2018 22.27 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2018 Jun 25 2226 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Jun 26 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Emesso: Jun 25, 2018 22.18 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2018 Jun 25 2218 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emesso: Jun 25, 2018 22.17 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2018 Jun 25 2216 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Jun 26 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Emesso: Jun 25, 2018 20.40 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Jun 26: None (Below G1) Jun 27: G1 (Minor) Jun 28: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jun 25, 2018 14.55 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2803
Begin Time: 2018 Jun 24 1800 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1133 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Emesso: Jun 24, 2018 20.30 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Jun 25: None (Below G1) Jun 26: None (Below G1) Jun 27: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Emesso: Jun 24, 2018 18.44 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2018 Jun 24 1800 UTC
Station: GOES-15


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Emesso: Jun 23, 2018 23.08 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2018 Jun 23 2208 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emesso: Jun 23, 2018 22.34 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2018 Jun 23 2233 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Jun 24 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Emesso: Jun 23, 2018 10.40 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2018 Jun 23 1040 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0900-1200 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Emesso: Jun 23, 2018 10.24 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2018 Jun 23 1024 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Jun 23 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

Tabella

Data Radio flux 10.7 cm SESC Numero di macchie solari Zona macchie solari 10E-6 Nuove regioni GOES15 X-ray Bkgd flux Brillamenti
X-ray Ottica
C M X S 1 2 3
Jun 18, 2018 74 28 20 1 A3.5 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Jun 19, 2018 77 41 80 1 A5.1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
Jun 20, 2018 82 54 180 0 A8.1 0 0 0 9 0 0 0
Jun 21, 2018 82 41 190 0 A8.5 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
Jun 22, 2018 80 41 180 0 A9.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 23, 2018 77 34 190 0 A9.3 0 0 0 4 0 0 0
Jun 24, 2018 75 16 100 0 B1.0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
Jun 25, 2018 73 14 40 0 A6.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 26, 2018 71 12 20 0 A3.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 27, 2018 70 0 0 0 A2.9 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Jun 28, 2018 70 0 0 0 A2.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 29, 2018 69 0 0 0 A1.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 30, 2018 69 0 0 0 A1.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 1, 2018 68 0 0 0 A1.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 2, 2018 67 0 0 0 A1.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 3, 2018 68 0 0 0 A1.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 4, 2018 68 0 0 0 A1.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 5, 2018 68 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 6, 2018 71 0 0 0 A1.8 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 7, 2018 72 0 0 0 A3.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 8, 2018 72 0 0 0 A3.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 9, 2018 73 0 0 0 A3.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 10, 2018 72 0 0 0 A2.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 11, 2018 73 0 0 0 A2.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 12, 2018 72 0 0 0 A2.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 13, 2018 73 0 0 0 A3.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 14, 2018 72 0 0 0 A3.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 15, 2018 72 0 0 0 A2.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 16, 2018 72 0 0 0 A2.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 17, 2018 71 0 0 0 A2.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Media/Totale 72 9 33 2 2 0 0 20 0 0 0

Grafico riassuntivo

Brillamenti

Solar wind

Solar Wind

The solar wind is a stream of plasma released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. It consists of mostly electrons, protons and alpha particles with energies usually between 1.5 and 10 keV. The stream of particles varies in density, temperature, and speed over time and over solar longitude. These particles can escape the Sun's gravity because of their high energy, from the high temperature of the corona and magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic phenomena in it.

The solar wind is divided into two components, respectively termed the slow solar wind and the fast solar wind. The slow solar wind has a velocity of about 400 km/s, a temperature of 1.4–1.6×10e6 K and a composition that is a close match to the corona. By contrast, the fast solar wind has a typical velocity of 750 km/s, a temperature of 8×10e5 K and it nearly matches the composition of the Sun's photosphere. The slow solar wind is twice as dense and more variable in intensity than the fast solar wind. The slow wind also has a more complex structure, with turbulent regions and large-scale structures.

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

The solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (2800 MHz) is an excellent indicator of solar activity. Often called the F10.7 index, it is one of the longest running records of solar activity. The F10.7 radio emissions originates high in the chromosphere and low in the corona of the solar atmosphere. The F10.7 correlates well with the sunspot number as well as a number of UltraViolet (UV) and visible solar irradiance records. Reported in “solar flux units”, (s.f.u.), the F10.7 can vary from below 50 s.f.u., to above 300 s.f.u., over the course of a solar cycle.

Flares

Flares

A solar flare is a sudden flash of brightness observed over the Sun's surface or the solar limb, which is interpreted as a large energy release of up to 6 × 10e25 joules of energy. They are often, but not always, followed by a colossal coronal mass ejection. The flare ejects clouds of electrons, ions, and atoms through the corona of the sun into space. These clouds typically reach Earth a day or two after the event.

Solar flares affect all layers of the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona), when the plasma medium is heated to tens of millions of kelvin, while the electrons, protons, and heavier ions are accelerated to near the speed of light. They produce radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum at all wavelengths, from radio waves to gamma rays, although most of the energy is spread over frequencies outside the visual range and for this reason the majority of the flares are not visible to the naked eye and must be observed with special instruments. Flares occur in active regions around sunspots, where intense magnetic fields penetrate the photosphere to link the corona to the solar interior. Flares are powered by the sudden (timescales of minutes to tens of minutes) release of magnetic energy stored in the corona. The same energy releases may produce coronal mass ejections (CME), although the relation between CMEs and flares is still not well established.

The frequency of occurrence of solar flares varies, from several per day when the Sun is particularly "active" to less than one every week when the Sun is "quiet", following the 11-year cycle (the solar cycle). Large flares are less frequent than smaller ones.

Classification

Solar flares are classified as A, B, C, M or X according to the peak flux (in watts per square metre, W/m2) of 100 to 800 picometre X-rays near Earth, as measured on the GOES spacecraft.

Classification Peak Flux Range at 100-800 picometer
W/m2
A < 10e-7
B 10e-7 to 10e-6
C 10e-6 to 10e-5
M 10e-5 to 10e-4
X 10e-4 to 10e-3
Z > 10e-3

An earlier flare classification is based on Hα spectral observations. The scheme uses both the intensity and emitting surface. The classification in intensity is qualitative, referring to the flares as: (f)aint, (n)ormal or (b)rilliant. The emitting surface is measured in terms of millionths of the hemisphere and is described below. (The total hemisphere area AH = 6.2 × 1012 km2.)

Classification Corrected area
(millionths of hemisphere)
S < 100
1 100 - 250
2 250 - 600
3 600 - 1200
4 > 1200

Sunspot number

Sunspots

Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the photosphere of the Sun that appear visibly as dark spots compared to surrounding regions. They correspond to concentrations of magnetic field that inhibit convection and result in reduced surface temperature compared to the surrounding photosphere. Sunspots usually appear in pairs, with pair members of opposite magnetic polarity. The number of sunspots varies according to the approximately 11-year solar cycle.

Sunspot populations quickly rise and more slowly fall on an irregular cycle of 11 years, although significant variations in the number of sunspots attending the 11-year period are known over longer spans of time. For example, from 1900 to the 1960s, the solar maxima trend of sunspot count has been upward; from the 1960s to the present, it has diminished somewhat. Over the last decades the Sun has had a markedly high average level of sunspot activity; it was last similarly active over 8,000 years ago.

The number of sunspots correlates with the intensity of solar radiation over the period since 1979, when satellite measurements of absolute radiative flux became available. Since sunspots are darker than the surrounding photosphere it might be expected that more sunspots would lead to less solar radiation and a decreased solar constant. However, the surrounding margins of sunspots are brighter than the average, and so are hotter; overall, more sunspots increase the Sun's solar constant or brightness. The variation caused by the sunspot cycle to solar output is relatively small, on the order of 0.1% of the solar constant (a peak-to-trough range of 1.3 W/m2 compared to 1366 W/m2 for the average solar constant).

Indici K



Oggi


0h
UTC
3h
UTC
6h
UTC
9h
UTC
12h
UTC
15h
UTC
18h
UTC
21h
UTC
1 1 1 1



Data


Estimated Planetary

Estimated Planetary

Data A Indici K (UTC)
0h 3h 6h 9h 12h 15h 18h 21h
Jun 19, 2018 6 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 1
Jun 20, 2018 5 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
Jun 21, 2018 3 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0
Jun 22, 2018 4 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Jun 23, 2018 16 2 3 2 4 4 3 2 4
Jun 24, 2018 7 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 2
Jun 25, 2018 12 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 5
Jun 26, 2018 20 5 3 3 4 3 3 3 2
Jun 27, 2018 7 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 3
Jun 28, 2018 5 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1
Jun 29, 2018 4 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 0
Jun 30, 2018 4 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1
Jul 1, 2018 3 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1
Jul 2, 2018 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
Jul 3, 2018 4 0 1 1 1 1 2 1 1
Jul 4, 2018 5 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1
Jul 5, 2018 17 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 4
Jul 6, 2018 7 3 2 1 2 2 1 1 2
Jul 7, 2018 5 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 0
Jul 8, 2018 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Jul 9, 2018 3 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1
Jul 10, 2018 7 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1
Jul 11, 2018 8 0 2 3 3 3 2 2 2
Jul 12, 2018 8 1 3 3 2 2 2 2 2
Jul 13, 2018 6 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1
Jul 14, 2018 5 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 0
Jul 15, 2018 4 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1
Jul 16, 2018 9 1 2 3 2 2 2 3 3
Jul 17, 2018 9 1 3 3 2 1 2 1 2
Jul 18, 2018 5 1 1 1 1

Middle Latitude

Data A Indici K
Jun 19, 2018 6 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1
Jun 20, 2018 7 1 2 3 3 2 1 1 1
Jun 21, 2018 4 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
Jun 22, 2018 4 0 1 1 2 2 1 1 1
Jun 23, 2018 15 2 3 2 4 3 2 3 4
Jun 24, 2018 8 2 2 3 2 2 1 2 2
Jun 25, 2018 10 2 1 1 2 2 2 3 4
Jun 26, 2018 17 5 3 3 3 3 2 3 2
Jun 27, 2018 7 1 3 2 1 2 1 2 2
Jun 28, 2018 5 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1
Jun 29, 2018 3 1 2 0 1 1 1 1 1
Jun 30, 2018 3 0 0 1 2 2 1 1 1
Jul 1, 2018 4 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1
Jul 2, 2018 4 1 1 0 1 2 2 2 1
Jul 3, 2018 5 1 1 0 2 2 2 2 1
Jul 4, 2018 4 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1
Jul 5, 2018 11 2 1 0 2 3 3 4 3
Jul 6, 2018 8 3 2 2 2 2 1 2 2
Jul 7, 2018 6 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1
Jul 8, 2018 6 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 2
Jul 9, 2018 5 1 1 1 1 2 2 2
Jul 10, 2018 11 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 1
Jul 11, 2018 8 0 2 2 2 3 3 2 2
Jul 12, 2018 8 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 2
Jul 13, 2018 6 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1
Jul 14, 2018 4 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1
Jul 15, 2018 4 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1
Jul 16, 2018 8 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 2
Jul 17, 2018 9 1 3 4 2 2 2 1 1
Jul 18, 2018 1 1 1 1

High Latitude

Data A Indici K
Jun 19, 2018 11 2 2 3 4 4 0 1 1
Jun 20, 2018 6 1 2 3 3 1 1 0 1
Jun 21, 2018 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0
Jun 22, 2018 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0
Jun 23, 2018 24 1 4 2 5 5 4 3 3
Jun 24, 2018 11 3 2 3 3 4 1 1 1
Jun 25, 2018 15 1 1 1 2 5 4 3 3
Jun 26, 2018 33 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 3
Jun 27, 2018 11 2 3 2 4 3 1 2 2
Jun 28, 2018 5 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 2
Jun 29, 2018 2 2 1 1 1 0 1 0 0
Jun 30, 2018 2 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
Jul 1, 2018 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 2, 2018 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 3, 2018 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1
Jul 4, 2018 5 0 2 2 1 3 1 1 0
Jul 5, 2018 13 2 1 1 2 4 4 3 3
Jul 6, 2018 8 2 3 1 3 3 1 1 1
Jul 7, 2018 4 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 0
Jul 8, 2018 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1
Jul 9, 2018 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jul 10, 2018 6 2 2 2 3 2 1 0 0
Jul 11, 2018 12 0 1 2 5 4 1 1 1
Jul 12, 2018 10 1 1 4 3 3 1 1 2
Jul 13, 2018 4 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 0
Jul 14, 2018 4 1 1 1 3 2 0 0 0
Jul 15, 2018 2 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0
Jul 16, 2018 14 1 2 4 5 2 2 1 2
Jul 17, 2018 20 1 4 4 2 2 2 1 6
Jul 18, 2018 1 1 0 0

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The K-index quantifies disturbances in the horizontal component of earth's magnetic field with an integer in the range 0–9 with 1 being calm and 5 or more indicating a geomagnetic storm. It is derived from the maximum fluctuations of horizontal components observed on a magnetometer during a three-hour interval. The label K comes from the German word Kennziffer meaning “characteristic digit”. The K-index was introduced by Julius Bartels in 1938.

The Estimated 3-hour Planetary Kp-index is derived at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center using data from the following ground-based magnetometers:

  • Sitka, Alaska
  • Meanook, Canada
  • Ottawa, Canada
  • Fredericksburg, Virginia
  • Hartland, UK
  • Wingst, Germany
  • Niemegk, Germany
  • Canberra, Australia

These data are made available thanks to the cooperative efforts between SWPC and data providers around the world, which currently includes the U.S. Geological Survey, Natural Resources Canada (NRCAN), the British Geological Survey, the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), and Geoscience Australia. Important magnetometer observations are also contributed by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and the Korean Space Weather Center K-index Watches are issued when the highest predicted NOAA estimated Kp-indices for a day are K = 5, 6, 7, or >= 8 and is reported in terms of the NOAA G scale. K-index Warnings are issued when NOAA estimated Kp-indices of 4, 5, 6, and 7 or greater are expected. K-index Alerts are issued when the NOAA estimated Kp-indices reach 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.


More info
Origine dati: NOAA, Wikipedia

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